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// My research activities...

// Academic Research

1984—1985
Building a recursive FORTH language interpreter
Applied Mathematics Institute, Angers, France
Undergraduate computer science project.
The software, developed in Pascal on PR1ME 2755 mini computer under PRIMOS, aimed at the implementation of a FORTH language interpreter.
The conception of this software implied a deep study of language interpretation mechanisms.
The implemented FORTH version (R-FORTH) allows recursion (hence the "R"), which is an innovation compared to the standard FORTH-83.
Mark obtained after oral defense: 19/20 (project realized alone).
1986—1987
Contribution to the development of a relational database management system
Applied Mathematics Institute, Angers, France
In the context of an industrial project for the TELELOGOS company  in Angers.
The aim was firstly to set up data structures providing rapid access to information on an request to a relational database management system using B-trees.
In a second phase, the specifications of a relational system have been identified over these structures. These specifications have not been implemented.
Developed in C under Unix System V, this software has been integrated into several commercial applications marketed by TELELOGOS.
The development of this software requested a deep study of the relational database management system principles.
Mark obtained after oral defense: 19/20 (team work).
Some clarification on the theory and applications of fuzzy sub-sets.
Applied Mathematics Institute, Angers, France

Bibliographical survey made in the context of personal research (written in French).
Topics:

  1. theory fuzzy sub-sets
  2. fuzzy and artificial intelligence
  3. fuzzy and databases
  4. fuzzy and operations research
During this personal exercise, I contacted a number of French and international researchers in the field. I thank them for their availability, patience and the effectiveness of their mail service ;-). I would particularly like to thank:
  • Didier Dubois and Henri Prade of the IRIT of Toulouse... my future thesis advisers... but this I did not know yet at the time.
  • Philippe Smets from IRIDIA of Brussels, who welcomed me in his laboratory of the Free University of Brussels.
After a number of presentations, this work has been integrated into the curriculum of the Applied Mathematics Institute at Angers at post graduate level at the time.
1987—1988
Towards an intelligent system to assist commercial activity
Applied Mathematics Institute, Angers, France

Performed in the context of the 3 months master internship within the Parisian marketing department of the "AMAIA Systèmes Informatiques", commercializing the MAIA computer.
The goal was to develop, in Prolog, a software to assist a marketing engineer in his daily activities.
The main modules were:

  1. a relational database management system to manage the list of customer prospects
  2. a marketing expertise module to identify customer prospects
  3. a module of activity synthesis generating reports automatically
  4. a module of tracking and control of commercial activities
Mark obtained after oral defense: 17.5/20 (project realized alone).
ESG: generation of the earliest state graph of a t-timed Petri net
Pierre & Marie Curie University, MASI Laboratory, Paris, France
Developed in collaboration with Pr. Philippe CHRETIENNE and Pr. Claire HANEN of MASI laboratory (now incorporated into the LIP6 laboratory) of the Paris-6 university (Pierre & Marie Curie), this software was designed to generate the earliest state graph of t-timed Petri net.

The ESG software (for Earliest State Graph) should ease the MASI laboratory researchers tasks in the scheduling domain and more specifically in the multiprocessors scheduling.

ESG has been developed in Pascal on PR1ME 2755 mini computer under PRIMOS and aimed at being ported on SUN SPARC workstation, under Solaris.
Integration of ESG in the MASI laboratory AMI workshop
Pierre & Marie Curie University, MASI Laboratory, Paris, France
A two months internship (July and September 1988) aimed at integrating the ESG software into the AMI workshop (Workshop of Interactive Modeling Petri nets oriented) of the MASI laboratory of the Paris-6 university (Pierre & Marie Curie).

The goal was to obtain a tool allowing any user, through a graphical interface (MACAO), to create a graph and to run one or more calculus over this graph. The calculus will be executed on the least loaded workstation of the network thanks to the re-routing module GATOS. The workstation sends the result back in a graphical or textual form depending on the nature of the performed calculus.

The first part of the internship was focused on porting the ESG software under Pascal SUN.

The second part was focused on interfacing the ESG software with the network layer of the AMI workshop.
1988—1989
Optimization and implementation of the Farkas algorithm to find the semi-flows of a Petri net
Pierre & Marie Curie University, MASI Laboratory, Paris, France

In the context of the MARP (Petri Nets Analysis Method) of the post graduate curriculum in informatics systems of the Paris-6 university (Pierre & Marie Curie), this study aimed at clarifying the expression of the Farkas algortithm as it is given in the state doctoral thesis of Gérard MEMMI.

In a second phase, some heuristics are highlighted, allowing to optimise the CPU time used to run this algorithm.

Finally, the Farkas algorithm under its new form has been implemented. The various heuristics listed have been tested and compared in order to judge their pertinence and to be able to select the best one depending on the specific case to address.

T-time Petri net earliest state graph calculation (Post graduate thesis)
Pierre & Marie Curie University, MASI Laboratory, Paris, France

Mark obtained at the post graduate exam: 16/20.

1989—1993
Constraints propagation with imprecise conditional probabilities
(Ph.D. thesis - written in French)
Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse Research Institute in Computer Science (IRIT), Toulouse, France

An approach to reasoning with default rules where the proportion of exceptions, or more generally the probability of encountering an exception, can be at least roughly assessed is presented. It is based on local uncertainty propagation rules which provide the best bracketing of a conditional probability of interest from the knowledge of the bracketing of some other conditional probabilities.
The iterative procedure, that does not require independence assumptions, looks promising with respect to the linear programming method.
  
Thesis adviser: Didier Dubois
Mention “very honorable” obtained after oral defense.

// Publications

S. Amarger, R. Epenoy, S. Grihon, Reasoning with conditional probabilities - NumQuant : a linear programming based method, Proc. of the DRUMS BRA Esprit Project, RP2 First Workshop, Albi (France), April 26-28, 1990, 154-167
S. Amarger, D. Dubois, H. Prade, Constraint propagation with imprecise conditional probabilities, Proc. of the Seventh Conference on Uncertainty in AI, UCLA, Los Angeles, July 13-18, 1991, Morgan & Kaufmann, Palo Alto, Ca., (Bruce D. D’Ambrosio, Philippe Smets, Piero P. Bonissone, Eds.), 26-34
S. Amarger, D. Dubois, and H. Prade, Handling imprecisely-known conditional probabilities. UNICOM “Seminar AI and Computer Power – The Impact on Statistics”, Brunel Conf. Center, West London, 13-14 March 1991
S. Amarger, D. Dubois, H. Prade, Imprecise quantifiers and conditional probabilities, Proc. of the First European Conf. ECSQAU (European Conf. on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Uncertainty), October 15-17, 1991 - Also in Lecture Notes on Computer Science #548, Springer-Verlag (R. Kruse, P. Siegel, Eds.), 1991, 33-37
S. Amarger, D. Dubois, H. Prade, Propagation de contraintes avec des probabilités conditionnelles imprécises, Actes du Huitième Congrés de Reconnaissance des Formes en Intelligence Artificielle (RFIA), Novembre 25-29, 1991, Lyon (France), Vol. 2, 741-750
S. Amarger, Propagation de Contraintes avec des Probabilités Conditionnelles Imprécises, Ph.D. Thesis, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France, July 1993
S. Amarger, How to Introduce Validation Techniques into Formal Methods?, Evaluation Report for the European Commission, October 1995
Quoted in the 2005 Annual Report AFII (Agency for Foreign Investments In France).
Interviewed for the French Senat report: "Les apports de la science et de la technologie au développement durable, Tome I : Changement climatique et transition énergétique : dépasser la crise". Report n° 426 (2005-2006) of the Senators Pierre Laffitte and Claude Saunier, for the French parliamentary office of technological and scientific choices evaluation technologiques, published on June 27, 2006
S. Amarger, M. Lenardi, L. Lin, N. Mariyasagayam, H. Menouar, Réseaux Véhiculaires Ad-Hoc : Technologies et Applications, Bulletin de Liaison France-Japon, Décembre 2007
S. Amarger, M. Koizumi, Histoire et Vision de la R&D de Hitachi en France, Bulletin de Liaison France-Japon, Décembre 2007

// Conferences

Constraint propagation with imprecise conditional probabilities, Seventh Conference on Uncertainty in AI, UCLA, Los Angeles, 13-18 juillet 1991
Handling imprecisely-known conditional probabilities, UNICOM “Seminar AI and Computer Power – The Impact on Statistics”, Brunel Conf. Center, West London, 13-14 mars 1991
Imprecise quantifiers and conditional probabilities, First European Conf. ECSQAU (European Conf. on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Uncertainty), 15-17 octobre 1991
Propagation de contraintes avec des probabilités conditionnelles imprécises, Huitième Congrés de Reconnaissance des Formes en Intelligence Artificielle (RFIA), 25-29 novembre 1991, Lyon
Ad Hoc Networks: Applications and Merits, Workshop on Broadband Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks and Services, 12-13 septembre 2002, ETSI, Sophia Antipolis, France
The New Challenges of Next Generation Mobile Communications - A Vision of 4 Generation and Beyond, Master Class at Interaction Design Institute, Ivrea, Italy
Chairman of the second session at the 8th Hitachi-Eurécom-NiCT Symposium: "Mobile Communications in Transports", Sophia-Antipolis, France, Novembre 18, 2004.
Hitachi in Europe, A Focus on Key Technologies, 9th International Venture Capital Summit (IVCS), 1-2 décembre 2005, Sophia-Antipolis, France.
Chairman of the first session at the 9th Hitachi-Eurécom-NiCT Symposium: "Security and Privacy in Communications: Towards a Trustworthy Society", Sophia-Antipolis, France, Novembre 24, 2005
Finger Vein Recognition System, 3rd World e-ID Conference, September 20-22, 2006, Sophia-Antipolis, France
Car-to-Car Communications Systems - Opportunities and Challenges, 1st Hitachi Automotive Technology Forum in Europe, Munich, 12 octobre 2006
La collaboration des acteurs de Sophia Antipolis pour le véhicule du futur, 3ème conférence internationale d’eden sur la conscience énergétique et l’innovation, Agora Einstein, Sophia Antipolis, 12 & 13 octobre 2006
Hitachi and NTIC - A Zoom on Security Activities, Grand Colloque STIC’06, 15-16 novembre 2006, Lyon, France
Car2Car Communication Consortium - Targeted Applications and Technical Aspects, 3rd International Automotive Electronics Congress, Paris, 24-25 octobre 2006
Moderator of the round table at the 10th Hitachi-Eurécom-NiCT Symposium: "2020 : Communications Odyssey", Novembre 24, 2006
Hitachi RFID Activities. From Japan to Europe, 2008 EU-Japan Cooperation Forum on ICT Research, Mita Kaigisho, Tokyo, Japan, 4-5 mars 2008